I am analytical. I like numbers. I like clear answers. Black and white. Not grey.
I was the Calculus member of my high school’s academic team in high school. Dad was an industrial engineer and the visual lens through which he viewed the world rubbed off on me. I initially majored in Physics because I appreciated how Calculus concepts could be applied to real life.
Fast forward 25 years. I love my work as a business lawyer. But, I still crave that opportunity to solve math problems (I did have a chance to be a financial analyst for two years before I started the firm). I just recently realize that, whenever I can, I attempt to solve my clients’ legal problems using spreadsheets and finite alternative scenarios. I reduce chaos and moving parts down to a formula, decision tree, or spreadsheet. There are only so many scenarios. There is a range of only so many possible outcomes. The law can only go so many ways.
Such an approach has worked really well for me in the context of settling business litigation. Recently, in bankruptcy litigation, I had to resolve the extent, amount, and priority of competing lien positions of 5 creditors (2 mortgage holders and 3 taxing bodies), on my clients’ commercial assets (including a building) and one of the owner’s residence. We tried to negotiate for months and no one was budging, but then I busted out my spreadsheets. I kept running the numbers given different assumptions regarding the value of the assets, whether to include interest and penalties, and given the two alternative legal outcomes as to whom should be first in lien priority. With the help of an esteemed mediator, we resolved the matter and successfully confirmed the plan of reorganization.
My abstract skills and fancy excel handywork also came in handy when I was about 29 (12 years ago, gasp), and working as a young associate. I developed an extensive series of “aging analysis” excel spreadsheets to utilize math to resolve a special type of bankruptcy litigation: preference litigation. The cases we handled were large dollar amounts in controversy, ranging from $15k- $8 million. Where a creditor is sued in a preference action (see first post on What the Heck is a Preference Action: Paying Off Favorite Creditors As a Business Tanks), there is an ordinary course of business defense. In order to mount this defense, a defendant should present an “aging analysis” of the length of time the parties were engaged in the transactions at issue.
We settled every time (with only one exception) and I am sure my extensive volumes of “aging analysis” spreadsheets helped. Maybe Dad would have preferred that I became an engineer like him. I don’t know. I do know that he would be proud of the way I approach my work now. Both my clients and I can thank my science and math teachers (Mr. Pete Karpyk, Mr. Phil Carey, Mrs. Kladakis, Mr. J.) for helping me be able to create these frameworks in which I can more readily resolve legal problems. So remember, #notalllawyershatemath.
Stay tuned for another post on exactly what is an “aging analysis” to be used to mount an ordinary course defense in a preference action.
Salene is a business and bankruptcy lawyer. This post does not constitute legal advice and does not constitute a guarantee of any legal outcome. The facts and legal issues vary from case to case; and not all outcomes will be the same.
By Daniel Hart, Paralegal and Salene Mazur Kraemer, Esquire.
In October 2015, every Pittsburgh local news outlet and national entertainment magazine reported on the bankruptcy fraud story of Abby Lee Miller. We have previously written here about her Chapter 11 Case: “Dance Mom” Instructor Abby Lee Miller Files for Chapter 11 Protection: Public Disclosure of Private Facts: Abby is the controversial star of the reality television show, “Dance Moms”. Her often abrasive personality is in contrast to the glitter of dance and beauty of her young dancers. She is quick to throw scathing insults at any of the children and their sometimes overly zealous Dance mothers.
Abby Lee filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2010, in Bankruptcy Court here in Pittsburgh. After some television surfing by a local bankruptcy judge and a subsequent investigation by local authorities, Abby may have committed bankruptcy fraud.
What is bankruptcy fraud? It is a white-collar crime that generally has taken four general forms:
- Debtors conceal assets to avoid having to forfeit them;
- Individuals intentionally file false or incomplete forms (underreporting income, overstating liabilities);
- Individuals file multiple times using false information or real information in several states;
- Debtors bribe a court-appointed trustee.
Nearly 70% of all bankruptcy fraud involves the first form, the concealment of assets. At the 341 meeting of creditors in each bankruptcy case, a debtor is required to testify under oath as to the accuracy of his or her bankruptcy petition and schedules. A bankruptcy trustee appointed by the United States Department of Justice probes each debtor about the facts and circumstances surrounding each case.
A bankruptcy trustee can only liquidate unexempt assets that are a part of the debtor’s “bankruptcy estate”. If the asset is not listed on the debtor’s schedules or the debtor does not reveal the asset, it can fly under the radar.
I tell each of my bankruptcy clients always to “tell the truth, reveal everything, err on the side of caution.” “You don’t want to end up in jail over this filing.”
The effects of bankruptcy fraud are often passed on to businesses, financial institutions, and the general consumer in the form of higher interest rates, greater loan fees, and higher taxes.
Bankruptcy fraud is a criminal offense. When a bankruptcy trustee suspects fraud but does not have enough evidence, he/she can compel testimony and document production from just about anyone through a Bankruptcy Rule 2004 examination. If fraud is suspected, the trustee refers the case to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The agency will undergo its own investigation. A debtor guilty of bankruptcy fraud faces stiff penalties as outlined at 18 U.S.C. §152 which can result in a fine up to $250,000 for each count of fraud, or up to a five-year prison sentence, or both.
A federal grand jury indicted Abby Miller on 20 counts of bankruptcy fraud, alleging she concealed about $755,000 in assets and made false bankruptcy declarations. Federal Bankruptcy Judge Thomas Agresti nearly approve Miller’s Chapter 11 reorganization plan but then he was channel surfing one night and saw commercials for the new season of “Dance Moms”. Miller claimed in her bankruptcy reorganization plan that she did not have a signed contract for a new season and that her income from the show was “volatile.”
It is alleged that Abby did in fact, have a signed contract and steady income. During the past three years while the the bankruptcy proceeding was pending, as required by the Department of Justice for all debtors, Miller was required to deposit her income into a special DIP (Debtor in Possession) account and report that income to the court on a monthly basis. Instead, it is alleged that she set up other bank accounts and funneled her income from the TV show and other ventures into those accounts.
If found guilty, Abby Lee faces up to five years in prison, not to mention outrageous fines given 20 counts. The surprising twist in this case is that Abby’s bankruptcy plan, we believe, provided for a 100% payout to unsecured creditors (a rarity); it appears that she would have had no need to hide assets; she was obligated to pay unsecured creditors 100% anyway! We shall see!
by Justin A. Saporito, Law Clerk
Aramid Entertainment Fund, Limited filed for Chapter 11 protection in the Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York on June 13, 2014. Debtor has declared assets of $237.3 million and consolidated debt of $11.5 million. Debtor was assigned case number 1:14-bk-11802, a judge has yet to be assigned. Approximately 96 creditors were listed in the petition; among them are several other Aramid entities including Aramid Liquidating Trust, Ltd. and Aramid Entertainment, Inc. which jointly filed with the Debtor and were assigned consecutive case numbers.
Aramid Entertainment Fund, Limited is part of Aramid Capital Partners, LLP, a London based hedge fund that specializes in financing movies. According to their website, Aramid Capital has provided financing for thirty-two (32) movies including Paranormal Activity, W., and How to Lose Friends & Alienate People. Please click here for a list of their productions.
Debtor filed for Chapter 11 protection due to the cost of ongoing litigation against several of its borrowers who failed to repay loans or violated film-financing agreements. One such suit began in February 2012 and is over an alleged $44 million in losses. Debtor invested $22 million in a financing deal between Relativity Media, LLC and Sony Pictures. Debtor alleges that executives from Fortress Investment Group, LLC used Aramid’s confidential information, which was allegedly obtained during a 2010 portfolio review as part of a proposed purchase of Debtor’s assets, to make a deal with Sony that destroyed Debtor’s investments.
The Riverhounds Event Center, L.P. and Riverhounds Acquisition Group, L.P., the limited partnerships that own and operate Highmark Stadium and the Pittsburgh Riverhounds Professional Soccer Club respectively, jointly declared voluntary Chapter 11 bankruptcy on March 26, 2014. Debtors filed in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, assigned case numbers 2:14-bk-21180 and 2:14-bk-21181 respectively. Both cases have been assigned to the Honorable Jeffery A. Deller.
The Riverhounds Event Center, L.P. owns and operates the newly constructed Highmark Stadium located in the South Side area of Pittsburgh and claims assets ranging from $1 million to $10 million with liabilities between $10 million and $50 million. Of those liabilities, $7.2 million is mortgage debt and $1.5 million in bank loans.
The Riverhounds Acquisition Group, L.P. is the limited partnership that owns the Pittsburgh Riverhounds minor league soccer team and claims assets ranging from $500,000 to $1 million with liabilities between $1 million and $10 million. The Pittsburgh Riverhounds was founded in 1999 and currently plays in the United Soccer Leagues. Much of the debt leading up to the bankruptcy was incurred in 2012-2013 during the construction of Highmark Stadium. The bankruptcy is not expected to affect the 2014 season.
Debtors share some creditors such as Shallenberger Construction, Inc., First National Bank of Pennsylvania, and Urban Redevelopment Association of Pittsburgh. Both debtors are represented by John M. Steiner of Leech Tishman Fuscaldo & Lampl, LLC.
By: Stephen Krug, Law Clerk
The various entities that comprise the Quiznos sandwich chain (“debtors”) filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware on March 14, 2014. A motion filed by debtors for joint administration of the cases was granted on March 17, and the case has been assigned to the Honorable Peter J. Walsh.
While debtors’ liabilities range from $500 million to $1 billion, the assets are only estimated to fall between $0 and $50,000. However, Debtors maintain that, although assets are low and 10,001 to 25,000 creditors exist, funds will be available for distribution to unsecured creditors. U.S. Bank National Association, as administrative agent and collateral agent under debtors’ second lien financing facility, is the largest unsecured claimant with a claim for approximately $174 million. Horizon Media Inc., MG-1005, LLC, and ESPN Inc. also hold substantial unsecured claims.
Debtors have proposed a pre-packaged reorganization plan that would slash debt by more than $400 million and would permit the handful of company-owned sandwich shops to remain operational. Sandwich stores operated by franchisees are not part of the bankruptcy proceedings and thus are not provided for in the pre-packaged plan.
Debtors hope to emerge from bankruptcy more viable than ever. Moving forward, debtors hope to reduce food costs and place more of an emphasis on advertising.
In the beginning of 2014, I was asked by the WV Attorney General’s office to participate in a town hall meeting to discuss issues impacting the WV economy. As a business and bankruptcy lawyer, I wanted to do my diligence. I asked my clients and colleagues what they believed were significant factors. Here was a punch list of the issues identified by them and those at the town hall meeting:
- retention and attraction of young talent
- scarcity of livable downtown spaces in major WV cities, Weirton, Wheeling, Huntington, Charleston, Martinsburg, Morgantown
- healthcare reform proving costly for new businesses
- business and Occupancy taxes
- rampant drug addiction
- revitalization of old industry to attract new industry.
- deterioration of main streets
- oil and gas industry presence.
Prior to the town hall meeting, I also asked Justin Saporito, my law clerk to take to google to research this topic.
Justin found a 2014 Outlook Report (Report) for WV’s economy, produced by West Virginia University’s College of Business and Economics (one of my alma maters).
The economy of West Virginia has grown steadily over the past year with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growing by 3.3% over the past year, ranking it tenth (10th) among U.S. states in real GDP growth. This growth was the result of several factors such as the addition of 3,000 new jobs over the past year, a state unemployment rate that has remained 1% below the national average for the past five years, and increased exports. Exports accounted for 16% of state economic output in 2012 compared with only 5% in 2000. The housing and automotive sectors of the economy, important indicators of economic health, have also seen increases. Home sales in WV are on par with home sales during the 2004-2005 housing boom and auto sales are at pre-recession levels.
According to the report, the key drivers of the economy in 2012 were coal mining, natural gas, healthcare, tourism, electrical power manufacturing, and chemical manufacturing. The Report predicted that annual job growth would increase in the healthcare services, wholesale and retail trade, construction, and professional and business service sectors every year through 2017.
A shining light for WV’s economy has been the city of Morgantown. Morgantown boasts an unemployment rate that is 3% below the national average with job growth above the national average with an estimated annual job growth rate of 2% in the coming years.
It is not all good news for WV however as it is ranked 47th among the 50 states in per capita income. Another major concern is the declining and aging population. WV’s median age is 5 years above the national average. Another concern is the state budget, ¼ of which comes from coal tax revenue and lottery revenue. With coal production predicted to fall through 2017, the state will have to find additional sources of revenue in the coming years. Despite these looming issues, WV is expected to have revenue growth of 3.5% for 2014.
The following case is of particular interest to Salene since she is originally from Weirton, West Virginia and attended West Virginia University.
Freedom Industries, Inc. filed a voluntary petition for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on January 17, 2014 in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of West Virginia. The case has been assigned to the Honorable Ronald G. Pearson. Both assets and liabilities are estimated to be between $1 and $10 million. Approximately 700 creditors are listed in the petition including multiple WV state agencies, service companies, and private individuals. Multiple motions were filed along with the petition including motions to allow payments to essential trade vendors and to pay $2.4 million in unpaid taxes to the IRS. A summary of debtor’s filings can be found here.
Debtor is a specialty chemicals manufacturer founded in 1986 and located in Charleston, WV. It manufactures chemicals for the mining, steel, and cement industries and is wholly-owned by Chemstream Holdings, Inc. The Charleston chemical plant is located along the Elk River and has recently been widely publicized as the cause of a chemical spill that contaminated the Elk River on January 9th, 2014 which led to state and federal states of emergency being declared. The spill left 300,000 residents without running water for several days. The chemical that leaked into the river is used in coal processing. The local water supply is currently said to be safe for residents in the nine affected counties except for residents in certain towns. Additionally, pregnant women in the affected areas are advised to drink only bottled water at this time.
Debtor is represented by Mark E. Freedlander of McGuire Woods LLP and Stephen L. Thompson from Barth & Thompson. Debtor also filed a motion to Employ Pietragallo, Gordon, Alfano, Bosick, and Raspanti, LLP as Special Litigation Counsel.
“Dance Moms” Instructor Abby Lee Miller Files for Chapter 11 Protection: Public Disclosure of Private Facts
Salene’s Preface: I was in Bankruptcy Court last week in Pittsburgh and noticed Abby walking into Court. (She is a stunning woman by the way and you can understand why she is on TV). I had to ask myself, “How do I know her?” I did figure it out pretty quickly. I was surprised to see her on my turf (that is in the world of commercial bankruptcy) and was not aware that Abby had filed for Ch. 11. My daughter is a dancer and I watch the show!
Abigale Lee Miller filed for Chapter 11 relief on January 3rd, 2011. The petition was filed in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania under petition number: 10-28606 TPA and has been overseen by the Honorable Judge Thomas P. Agresti.
Debtor is better known as Abby Lee Miller, the host and instructor for the popular Lifetime reality television show Dance Moms. The show follows a group mothers and their young daughters who are participating in the world of young competitive dance. The show takes place in Pittsburgh, PA at the debtor’s studio, the Abby Lee Dance Company, and follows the ladies as they travel across the country to various competitions. Dance Moms is currently holding open casting calls for its 4th season.
The Abby Lee Dance Company was formed 27 years ago as a not-for-profit organization and is an audition only program. It is located at 7123 Saltsburg Road, Pittsburgh, PA, 15235. Debtor is also the owner of Reign Dance Productions, which shares the building with The Abby Lee Dance Company.
Debtor has declared approximately $325,500 in assets with approximately $356,500 in liabilities. Thirty-four creditors are listed in the petition, with Chase Mortgage holding the largest unsecured claim in the amount of $50,000. This debt is the unsecured portion of what appears to be a $200,000 undersecured mortgage on a home of Ms. Miller’s in Florida valued at $150k. Ms. Miller’s dance studio has a $96,000 mortgage on it; the studio is valued at around $150,000 Ms. Miller owes about $27,000 in back taxes (which are unsecured priority claims). Her unsecured debt only totals $32,000, many of whom are vendors for her business.
The Second Amended Disclosure Statement was approved on January 18th, 2013 and the Order Approving Disclosure Statement and Scheduling Hearing on Plan Confirmation was entered into on October 21st, 2013. Please click here to for a copy of the order. The debtor is represented by Donald R. Calaiaro of Calaiaro & Corbett, P.C. The Confirmation Hearing to approve her Plan of Reorganization is set for December 12, 2013 at 1:30 p.m. EST. Please click here for a copy of the Disclosure Statement. A summary of the Chapter 11 plan can be found here.
Salene’s comment: We purposefully do not often write blog posts about individual Chapter 11 cases (usually filed by very wealth individuals. Most folks file a Chapter 7 or Chapter 13). When a company or person files for bankruptcy, I warn my clients that you are subjecting yourselves to a “financial autopsy”; you are making a public filing of all of your assets and liabilities. So, information seekers can look up what your home is worth, what kind of car you drive, how much credit card debt you have, whether you own a fur coat, how much your wedding ring costs, and whether you have any money in an IRA/401k. Anyone can see how much money you have made in the last three years and they get to read what your monthly budget is for expenses. While there are certainly benefits to the privilege of filing for bankruptcy, public disclosure of private facts is certainly one of the drawbacks.
On September 3, 2013 Fairmont General Hospital, Inc. of Fairmont, WV and affiliate company Fairmont Physicians, Inc. (“debtors”) filed voluntary petitions for bankruptcy relief under Chapter 11 of the bankruptcy code with Fairmont General Hospital, Inc. as the lead debtor. The petitions were filed with the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of West Virginia with the assigned case numbers 1:13-bk-01054 and 1:13-bk-01055 respectively. The cases were assigned to the Honorable Judge Patrick M. Flatley (who is originally from Salene’s hometown of Weirton by the way) and consolidated (by debtors’ request) under case number 1:13-bk-01054.
The Debtors’ Chapter 11 Plan and Disclosure Statement are due by January 2, 2014. Schedules A-J were originally due on September 17, 2013 as were a Statement of Financial Affairs, Statement of Operations, Federal Income Tax Return, and other filings. (Please see the docket summary for a complete list of due filings.) At the time of filing, the debtors made multiple motions including motions to extend the time before the required Schedules and other would become due, maintain existing financial institutions and practices, pay pre-filing debts and obligations, and maintain utility services. All of these motions were granted. For a complete breakdown of the case please refer to the docket summary. The Meeting of Creditors has been set for Thursday, October 31, 2013 at 10:00 AM.
Fairmont General Hospital (FGH) is a private, non-profit, community hospital that was originally founded in 1939. FGH offers a variety of health services including surgical, rehabilitation, mental health, wellness/testing, emergency services, and more. For a complete list of the services they offer please click here.
The debtors claim assets and liabilities between $10 and $50 million. Notably, the debtors are currently seeking a strategic partner to take over its facility. The debtors are represented by Rayford K. Adams, III of Spilman, Thomas, & Battle, PLLC. Spilman, Thomas, & Battle, PLLC has seven offices spread across West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina with three of their offices located in West Virginia.
On September 10th, 2013 Prithvi Catalytic, Inc. filed a voluntary petition for relief under Chapter 11 in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, which was incomplete. Statements A-J, Statement of Operations, Summary of Schedules, and Tax Information are due by September 24th, 2013 and a Chapter 11 Plan is due by January 8th, 2014. Debtor claimed assets between $1 million to $10 million with liabilities ranging from $10 million to $50 million.
The Debtor is a multi-national IT Consulting and Engineering solutions company that began operations in 1998 with its registered office in Hyderabad, India and opened its first U.S. office near Seattle, WA in 2000. The Debtor expanded operations with new development centers and sales offices in the U.S., Canada, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Middle East. Debtor focuses its strategic business in the healthcare, retail, BFSI (banking, financial services, and insurance), and telecom markets and provides services in Europe in addition to the regions where it maintains offices.
A total of fifty-four creditors are listed on the Debtor’s petition including the District of Columbia, various Departments from 22 different U.S. states, the federal government, and several private companies. Click here for Complete list of Creditors and summary of docket.
Debtor is represented by Louis P. Vitti of Vitti & Vitti & Associates, PC located at 215 Fourth Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15222. The Office of the United States Trustee Liberty Center shall be represented by Kathleen Robb located at Suite 970 1001 Liberty Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15222.